Podaj cechy gruczołu dokrewnego
Cechy gruczołu dokrewnego:
Wykorzystując wyrazy podane drukowanymi literami, uzupełnij każde zdanie z luką, tak
aby zachować sens zdania wyjściowego (9.1.–9.4.). W każdą lukę można wpisać
maksymalnie cztery wyrazy, wliczając wyraz już podany. Wymagana jest pełna
poprawność ortograficzna i gramatyczna wpisywanych fragmentów zdań.
Uwaga: nie zmieniaj formy podanych wyrazów.
9.1. Your car is making strange noises. A mechanic should check it.
Your car is making strange noises. You should _________________________________
by a mechanic.
9.2. When you are working on so many assignments at the same time, you will probably make
When you are working on so many assignments at the same time, mistakes ___________
9.3. My father never thought that someone would reveal his secret.
It never _______________________________________________ that his secret would
9.4. We couldn’t do anything to help John in that situation. He insisted on sorting it out on his
There was ___________________________________________________ to help John
in that situation. He insisted on sorting it out on his own.
Przeczytaj tekst. Uzupełnij każdą lukę (8.1.–8.4.) jednym wyrazem, tak aby powstał
spójny i logiczny tekst. Wymagana jest pełna poprawność gramatyczna i ortograficzna
HOW TO GET A STAR ON THE HOLLYWOOD WALK OF FAME?
In theory anyone can apply to have a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame in one of five
categories: film, TV, radio, recording and theatre performance. But, in fact, it’s not as simple
as 8.1. _________________________. First, a candidate has to be nominated. Nominations
can be submitted by anyone, from publicists and fans 8.2. _________________________
celebrities themselves. Next, the nominee must sign a form stating that they want a star, and
that they will attend the unveiling ceremony. If the application 8.3. ______________________
accepted, whoever did the nominating needs to pay a fee of $30,000. The Chamber of
Commerce claims that half of the fee goes into creating the star, while
the 8.4. _________________________ half is used for its maintenance. Interestingly, some
of our favourite A-listers – like Julia Roberts, Clint Eastwood, Denzel Washington, and
Al Pacino – don’t have a star.
adapted from www.businessinsider.com
Complete the second sentence so that it means the same as the first. Use two to five words, including the word in bold.
1. There were too many people on the beach and it took us ages to find an empty spot. CROWDED
The beach............that it took us ages to find an empty spot.
2. This hotel isn't nearly as good as the one where we stayed last year. LOT
The hotel where we stayed last year was........... than this one.
3. There weren't many good restaurants in the town. HARDLY
There............good restaurants in the town.
4. The weather today is quite cold. RATHER
It's ................................. day today.
Przeczytaj tekst. Z podanych odpowiedzi wybierz właściwą, tak aby otrzymać logiczny
i gramatycznie poprawny tekst. Zakreśl jedną z liter: A, B, C albo D.
RED DIDN’T ALWAYS MEAN STOP!
In the world of signals, it’s an undisputed fact that red means stop. From red traffic lights to
the stop sign itself, the colour red 7.1. _____ the drivers’ attention and sends them a message
to hit the brakes. But you probably don’t know that the stop sign has only been red for about
seventy years. The first one erected in Detroit in 1915 was white, with the word STOP in black
letters. 7.2. _____ 1954 that the sign became red with white letters.
In the early 20th century, stop signs weren’t any specific colour or shape, which confused
drivers. In 1922, the American Association of State Highway Officials (AASHO) decided on
standardisation and introduced the sign’s octagonal shape. This unique eight-sided shape was
chosen 7.3. _____ drivers who saw the back of the sign were aware that oncoming drivers had
a stop sign. The shape could also be identified easily at night, since the original signs were not
At the same time, the AASHO also considered making stop signs red, but, back then, there
was no red dye that wouldn’t 7.4. _____ over time. They were yellow for the following thirty
years. In 1954, sign makers began using special porcelain enamel and achieving a long-lasting
red colour was no longer a problem.
adapted from www.rd.com
A. No wonder it was
B. It wasn’t back in
C. It wasn’t until
D. No later than in
A. in case
B. so that
C. in order to
D. such as
Przeczytaj dwa teksty związane z samolotami. Z podanych odpowiedzi wybierz
właściwą, zgodną z treścią tekstu. Zakreśl jedną z liter: A, B, C albo D.
AT THE AIRPORT
Airports are torture chambers if you’re claustrophobic. It’s not just the threat of the ride ahead
– being stuffed into seats like sardines and then catapulted through the air in a narrow metal
tube – but also the terminals themselves, the crowds of people, all the motion and noise, and
the whole thing sealed off by glass windows like some kind of a horrible ant farm. This is just
one of the many things that Hadley is trying not to think about as she stands before the ticket
counter. She can feel something miserable inside her. Part of it is the flight to London awaiting
her and part of it is the airport itself, but to make matters worse there is the realisation that
she’ll now be late for the wedding she didn’t even want to go to in the first place, and something
about this sad little twist of fate makes her feel like crying.
She’s spent the past few weeks secretly wishing this very thing might happen, though
admittedly, her fantasy scenarios have been a bit more dramatic: a massive airline strike;
an epic hailstorm; a failure of all of the plane’s engines. All perfectly good reasons why she
might have to miss her father’s walk down the aisle to marry a woman she’s never met. But
being late for your flight seems just a little too convenient, maybe a bit suspicious, and Hadley
isn’t at all sure that father will understand that it wasn’t her fault.
“I’m sorry, Miss,” one of the gate attendants says. “There’s nothing we can do but try to get
you on the evening flight.” Hadley nods her head. The attendant is now working the keyboard
of her computer with a kind of violent intensity, punching at the keys.
“You’re in luck,” she says. “There is one free seat available.”
Hadley is almost afraid to pose the question, but she asks it anyway, “What time does
it reach its destination?”
“Nine fifty-four, tomorrow morning.”
Hadley pauses for a moment and says, “I suppose I’ll have to take it.”
“Boarding will start from this gate at seven-thirty tonight and the plane leaves at eight-fifteen,”
the attendant says, handing over the papers, which are all neatly bound in a little jacket.
Hadley goes towards the windows and examines the rows of grey chairs, most of them
occupied. She puts her backpack on top of her carry-on suitcase. The smell of butter from
a nearby pretzel stand is making her slightly sick. She wishes she could just call off her flight,
take a taxi and go home but she knows she can’t do it. She also knows that it’s a holiday
weekend so there won’t be any other free seats, and the weather maps on the TV screens
show a whirling pattern of storms approaching. There are suitcases on empty chairs, families
camped out around corners, greasy McDonald’s bags scattered across the floor. Finally, she
spots an empty seat and she hurries in that direction.
6.1. What do we learn about Hadley from the first paragraph?
A. She felt so helpless that she burst into tears.
B. She was angry she had to wait so long for her ticket.
C. She felt guilty for wishing there would be a delay at the airport.
D. She was anxious about the journey to London for a number of reasons.
6.2. Before arriving at the airport, Hadley
A. imagined missing the wedding.
B. took some steps to prevent the wedding.
C. discovered she would be an unwelcome guest at the wedding.
D. was worried about the weather conditions during the wedding.
6.3. When Hadley was offered another flight, she
A. decided to stay at the airport until the morning.
B. made sure that it would depart as scheduled.
C. felt sick at the thought of a crowded plane.
D. accepted the booking reluctantly.
WHO’S REALLY FLYING THE PLANE?
Air travel has always been rich with conspiracy theories and old wives’ tales. I’ve heard it all.
Nothing, however, frustrates me more than the myths about cockpit automation – this
widespread view that in some not-too-distant future pilots will not be necessary on the plane
at all. This nonsense is constantly in the news and millions of people actually believe it. It’s
true that processors and electronic control systems allow pilots to fly ‘hands off’ just after
take-off, continuing through the flight route and – in very rare cases – all the way through to
landing. But that doesn’t mean the planes actually fly themselves.
Of course, the technology can help but it should be the pilot who decides how and when to use
it. During his famous ‘miracle on the Hudson’ emergency landing in 2009, Capt. Chesley
Sullenberger had the backup of the computer autopilot. He was in the pilot’s seat when
Airbus A320 collided with a flock of geese and lost thrust 2,700 feet over Manhattan.
Computer-assisted flight systems were active but there was no need for them. In fact, flight
control computers actually posed a problem for Sullenberger because the flight software
interfered with his efforts and thus prevented him from keeping the plane’s nose a little higher
during the last four seconds before he brought US Airways Flight 1549 down in the icy Hudson
River. “We hit harder than we would have if I had been able to keep the nose up,” he said.
During a normal flight, there’s no way to know when your pilots are using
computer-programmed automatic flight systems but one thing is sure: hands-on flying
hasn’t disappeared and it won’t do so in the near future.
adapted from https://edition.cnn.com
6.4. In the first paragraph, we learn that the author is frustrated by
A. the idea that automation will replace pilots.
B. pilots’ overreliance on automated computer control systems.
C. the prospect of take-off and landing becoming fully automated.
D. the attention the media pay to experts working on computer autopilots.
6.5. During the ‘miracle on the Hudson’ the software
A. broke down just before landing.
B. was used inappropriately by the pilot.
C. made landing the plane more challenging.
D. caused serious problems when the plane hit the water.
Podkreśl wydarzenia związane z dwudziestoleciem międzywojennym.
upadek komunizmu w Polsce, odkrycie penicyliny, Anschluss Austrii, obrady Okrągłego Stołu, powstanie filmów animowanych, wynalezienie żarówki, branka, noc kryształowa, Wielka Emigracja, narodziny nazizmu, pakt Ribbentrop-Mołotow, łagry, duce
Przeczytaj tekst, z którego usunięto cztery zdania. Wpisz w każdą lukę (5.1.–5.4.) literę,
którą oznaczono brakujące zdanie (A–E), tak aby otrzymać spójny i logiczny tekst.
Uwaga: jedno zdanie zostało podane dodatkowo i nie pasuje do żadnej luki.
25 PLACES THAT SHAPE YOUR LIFE
Some people are always out, going to concerts, restaurant openings, you name it. They never
fall into a predictable leisure routine! Or so it seems. However, according to a new study,
everyone has a set of places they return to regularly. Twenty-five of them, to be precise.
5.1. _____ With the use of GPS their whereabouts were mapped throughout the day.
The study showed that although the students often visited new spots, they spent most of their
time in roughly 25 places that they returned to repeatedly. They weren’t always frequent
visitors, but they were regular enough.
This behaviour seemed linked to university life when students are relatively campus-bound.
5.2. _____ Again, to their surprise, it turned out that visiting 25 places on a regular basis
seemed to be an unwritten rule for all of them. People didn’t show up in more locations when
they had more free time to explore, or fewer when they had less. What the number of places
they went to correlated with was the number of friends they had. More friends translated into
slightly more places visited.
These results by no means suggest that we don’t incorporate new places into our routines.
We do! All the time! 5.3. _____ This may suggest that humans simply don’t have the mental
capacity for much more than 25 places. This finding could have implications for how cities are
designed or how governments manage epidemics. 5.4. _____ After all, if you can only be
a regular in 25 places, it’s worth selecting them carefully. Companies are constantly investing
in offices encouraging creativity and collaboration and people have to start to think about the
spaces they visit outside of work in the same way, seeking out layouts and amenities that help
them feel their best.
adapted from https://curiosity.com
A. But when the researchers scaled up the study to 40,000 people from all over the world with different kinds of lifestyles, they found the exact same thing.
B. When we change university, for example, the number of places on our mental list can increase to 30 or even 40.
C. It could also have an influence on how people think about their personal choices.
D. Initially, the research carried out in the UK and Denmark involved a relatively small group of 850 university students.
E. We change neighbourhoods, try new restaurants, and so forth, but for every new pizza place we discover, an old favourite gets abandoned.
Przeczytaj tekst, który został podzielony na trzy części (A–C), oraz pytania go dotyczące
(4.1.–4.4.). Do każdego pytania dopasuj właściwą część tekstu. Wpisz rozwiązania
Uwaga: jedna część tekstu pasuje do dwóch pytań.
In which paragraph does the author mention
4.1. the overall duration of the unusual phenomenon?
4.2. risky behaviour motivated by curiosity?
4.3. what caused the Niagara Falls to dry up?
4.4. the negative impact of the small amount of water in the river?
THE DAY THE NIAGARA FALLS STOPPED FLOWING
A. In 1848, the Niagara Falls were already a tourist attraction, and villages had grown up on
both the U.S. and Canadian sides of the river to accommodate the crowds of sightseers.
But on March 29th, shortly before midnight, a farmer who had gone out for a stroll noticed
that something was wrong. When he went to the edge of the Niagara River, he saw hardly
any water. At dawn on March 30th, people awoke to an unusual silence. The mighty Niagara
was just a trickle. Fish were dying. Turtles and other creatures living in the river were
clumsily working their way through the mud. People walked on the exposed river bed, eager
to discover what had been hidden below the water surface, ignoring the fact they might be
swept away if the water suddenly started flowing. They picked up old daggers and
tomahawks as souvenirs.
B. No one knew why the falls had stopped flowing. The telegraph was still a new invention.
Railroads already served towns on both sides of the river, but the tracks were unreliable,
and Buffalo, the nearest big city, was three hours away even when the trains ran on time.
Yet it was from Buffalo that the first news about the problem eventually arrived. It turned out
that strong southwest winds had pushed huge chunks of ice to the north-eastern tip of Lake
Erie which blocked the water flow and created an ice dam.
C. When water stopped flowing on March 29th, people started coming from nearby cities and
towns to see what had happened. No water flowed over the falls all day on March 30th and
throughout the daylight hours of March 31st. But that night, a distant low-pitched noise came
from upriver. It got nearer and louder. Suddenly, a wall of water came down the upper
Niagara River and over the falls with a giant thunder. The river was running again.
adapted from www.niagarafrontier.com
Usłyszysz dwukrotnie wywiad z naukowcem. Z podanych odpowiedzi wybierz właściwą,
zgodną z treścią nagrania. Zakreśl jedną z liter: A, B, C albo D.
3.1. Why does Professor Cantrell teach his students to scuba dive?
A. to help them link his teaching to real life experience
B. to pursue his passion for exploring coral reefs
C. to prove that biology can be taught anywhere
D. to check their knowledge of marine life
3.2. Why did Professor Cantrell decide to carry out the project?
A. to motivate primary school children to get interested in science
B. to analyse students’ attitudes towards threats to the oceans
C. to encourage school trips to the Florida Undersea Lodge
D. to make young people interested in science again
3.3. While carrying out the project, Professor Cantrell
A. recorded classes to be shown later.
B. cooperated with other marine life specialists.
C. drew inspiration from similar underwater broadcasts.
D. allowed students to stay in the Florida Undersea Lodge overnight.
3.4. When asked about coral reefs, Professor Cantrell says that
A. diving and sailing interfere with their restoration.
B. the process of growing coral takes too much time.
C. excessive paperwork is delaying their restoration.
D. scientists are discouraged from growing coral for transplant.
3.5. When answering the last question, Professor Cantrell
A. points to an unexpected turn his career has taken following the project.
B. explains why underwater research projects are necessary.
C. discusses the potential for similar projects worldwide.
D. gives evidence for the success of the project.
Usłyszysz dwukrotnie cztery wypowiedzi na temat różnych sytuacji związanych
z uroczystościami ślubnymi. Do każdej wypowiedzi (2.1.–2.4.) dopasuj odpowiadające
jej zdanie (A–E). Wpisz rozwiązania do tabeli.
Uwaga: jedno zdanie zostało podane dodatkowo i nie pasuje do żadnej wypowiedzi.
This speaker mentions
A. an amusing solution to a break in water supply.
B. a wedding planner’s mistake that resulted in a disaster.
C. damage to a wedding venue which happened shortly before the reception.
D. a wedding planner’s idea rejected by the bride and groom.
E. the reason for the unappealing look of a wedding gift.
2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4.
Usłyszysz dwukrotnie trzy teksty. Z podanych odpowiedzi wybierz właściwą, zgodną
z treścią nagrania. Zakreśl jedną z liter: A, B albo C.
1.1. Which is the best headline for the news item?
A. FISHERMAN FALLS VICTIM TO A SHARK ATTACK
B. SHARK DISRUPTS A POLICE OPERATION
C. BOAT OWNER ALARMS POLICE ABOUT A HUGE SHARK
1.2. Which of the following is stated by the speaker as an opinion, and not a fact?
A. Businesses are responsible for most of the city’s waste.
B. Half of the trash produced by the city per year has to be recycled.
C. Recycling can reduce the company’s waste disposal costs by a quarter.
1.3. What are the speakers doing?
A. negotiating a part of a contract
B. arguing about the meaning of a paragraph in a contract
C. deciding how to share the profits they have made on a contract